Among the Latin American poets of the nineteenth century one of the most prominent is José Martí, whose poems have even been worth many musicians to conquer fame, such is the case of Silvio Rodríguez. This poet was born on January 28, 1853 in Havana and, despite having suffered innumerable grievances (sentenced to prison and subsequent exile), he did not renounce his ideas and used poetry as a means to express himself. In his poetry can be noted a strong tendency to realism and a clear rejection of aesthetics proposed by lovers of rhetoric. Through clear and direct verses, the poet managed to express his political ideas, his feelings of love and even his position on religions. José Martí died on May 19, 1895 having been hit by enemy bullets, fulfilling as he expressed it in a letter to a friend, with his duty: to defend his homeland. It is important to note that all his work has been a source of inspiration for later poets and is remembered today as one of the indelible figures of Latin American poetry of the late 1800s. Among his most renowned poems can be named: "I am a sincere man "," What does it matter that your dagger "and" I grow a white rose ".
Cultivate a white rose
Cultivate a white rose in June as in January For the honest friend who gives me his outspoken hand
And for the cruel one who tears me the heart with which I live, Thistle or nettle cultivation; I grow the white rose.
He was born in Havana, when Cuba was still under Spanish rule, on January 28, 1853. He was the son of Don Marino Martí and Navarro and of Mrs. Leonor Pérez y Cabrera. It was called José Julián.
In 1865 he entered the Municipal High School and then the College of San Carlos. In 1869 he was sentenced to prison for six years, for having published writings considered seditious (in them he called a traitor a fellow student who had enlisted as a volunteer in the Spanish Army). The exile to Spain was the result of the commutation of the sentence. In that country he studied at the Universities of Madrid and Zaragoza, culminating his studies in Law and Philosophy and Letters. It dates from that time "The Political Prison in Cuba", where the Spanish government was the subject of criticism for its cruelty and rudeness.
After returning to Cuba, and being banished again to Spain, he married in 1877 with Carmen de Zayas Bazán who made him father of Ismael, inspirer of many of his verses. He moved to New York (United States) in 1880 and there he wrote in some newspapers, such as "The Sun" and the magazine "The Tour". Later he wrote for the newspaper "La Nación", of Buenos Aires (Argentina). He was Consul of Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, but his heart forced him to fight for the liberation of his homeland, and founded the Revolutionary Committee. Along with Generals Máximo Gómez and Antonio Macero, he embarked on his way to Cuba to fight. He landed on the island in 1895, and died at the hands of Spanish forces on May 19 of that same year. He was a great speaker and journalist, an exhibitor of modernism. He innovated in the matter of rhythms, accents and nuances, enunciating critical contents about literature and the art of the moment.
Along with Rubén Darío, (Nicaragua), Julián del Casal (Cuba), Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera (Mexico) and José Asunción Silva (Colombia), is considered to be the initiator of the Hispano-American modernist movement. He wrote about travel chronicles, art criticism, theater plays, such as "Patria y Libertad" (Indian drama in two acts), "Abdala" (a piece in eight scenes written at sixteen), "Amor con amor pays" (an act). He also wrote a novel: "Unhappy Love", and numerous poems that met in several short volumes: "Ismaelito" (1882), "Simple Verses" published in 1891. This could be considered his most finished work. Poems such as "La rosa blanca" and "La niña de Guatemala" are included in this Anthology. "Versos libres", was published in 1913 by Gonzalo de Quesada de Oróstegui, in Volume IX of the Complete Works. It is a strong and hard poetry, described by its own author as written "not with academic ink, but with one's own blood". Selections of his poems were published twice, with a prologue and notes by Rubén Darío. As a journalist he introduced in 1882 absolutely modernist techniques, synesthesia, harmony and elaborate metaphors. He created what he called Max Heriquez, artistic prose.
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